SVAŠTA O ZAČINIMA: DEFINICIJA MIRODIJA I ZAČINA, RECEPTI, POHRANA,...
Definitions of herbs and spices vary somewhat but can be identified as follows:
Herbs are leaves of low-growing shrubs. Examples are parsley, chives, marjoram, thyme, basil, caraway, dill, oregano, rosemary, savory, sage and celery leaves. These can be used fresh or dried. Dried forms may be whole, crushed, or ground. Many herbs can be grown in the United States in or out of doors.
Spices come from the bark (cinnamon), root (ginger, onion, garlic), buds (cloves, saffron), seeds (yellow mustard, poppy, sesame), berry (black pepper), or the fruit (allspice, paprika) of tropical plants and trees.
Many dehydrated vegetable seasonings are available. These include onion, garlic, sweet peppers, mint, mixed vegetables, and freeze-dried chives and shallots.
Condiments are usually a combination of herbs and spices blended in a liquid form. Examples are prepared mustard, catsup, Worcestershire sauce, tabasco sauce, and many of the steak sauces and specialty vinegars. Many of these contain sodium.
Seasoning blends are mixtures of spices and herbs. Check spice companies for exact mixtures. Some examples of seasoning blends are:
Chili powder (red pepper, cumin, oregano, salt, and garlic powder)
Curry powder (coriander, turmeric, cumin, fenugreek seed, white pepper, allspice, yellow mustard, red pepper, and ginger)
Poultry seasoning (white pepper, sage, thyme, marjoram, savory, ginger, allspice, and nutmeg)
Pumpkin pie spice (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, allspice, and cloves)
Whole herbs and spices last much longer than crushed or ground forms. Many consumers prefer to buy the whole form and crush or grind as needed for greater freshness. Herbs and spices can be crushed with a mortar and pestle, by using a rolling pin with spices between two cloths, or by using the back of a spoon in a cup.
Check ground or crushed herbs and spices for freshness at least once a year. If no aroma is detected after crushing, the seasoning needs to be replaced. Mustard seed and poppy seed aromas will be difficult to detect. Buying the smaller size instead of the economy size container will save money if the large package is not used while it is still fresh.
Store away from moisture. Dampness causes caking and a loss of quality.Store in tightly covered, air tight container.Use clean, dry spoons for measuring.
Store in a cool place.Do not store in a window or in sunlight, or near heat sources such as the cooking areas or the dishwasher.In hot climates, store spices such as paprika, red pepper, and chili powder in the refrigerator to maintain quality.
Storage Life of Herbs and Spices
6 months-2 years
3 months-2 years
6 months rice
Enhancing Sweet Flavors
Enhance flavor with sweet tasting spices instead of sugar: allspice, anise, cardamon, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, mace, nutmeg. Milk-Yogurt-Cheese: custards, puddings, sauces Meats: beef, fish, poultry, sauces, bean dishes Vegetables: beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, pumpkin Fruits: fruit compote, baked fruit, spiced fruit Breads: gingerbread, sweet yeast breads, pumpkin bread, banana bread, rice or bread pudding.
Enhancing Savory Flavors
Seasoned salts (garlic salt) contain salt. Most meat sauces (steak sauce, soy sauce) are high in sodium.
Make yogurt-based spicy dressings to use with salads and fruit dishes. The following spices are good to use as a substitute for salt/sodium and fat: basil, bay leaf, celery seed, chili powder, cumin, curry powder, dill, marjoram, mustard, oregano, paprika, pepper, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme.
You can use these spices with fondue, cheese spread, chowder, meats, souffl», curried dishes, beans and soups, salads, greens, tomatoes/juice, pasta salads, specialty breads, and rice.
The Art of Seasoning
The art of using herbs and spices is learning how much to add and how to combine flavors. Several guidelines suggest amounts to use in developing recipes: Use strong, pungent spices such as red pepper in small amounts. More delicate seasoning can be used in greater amounts without ruining the final product. Although the herb or spice should enhance and not overpower the flavor, cultural preferences will influence your decision.
Start with a tested recipe. After it has been prepared, decide if more or less seasoning is needed for the next time. Spice and herb companies recommend about 1/4 teaspoon (a pinch) of spice per pound of meat or pint of liquid when creating recipes. Only use 1/8 teaspoon of stronger seasonings such as red pepper and garlic. Remember, it is easier to add more than to try to compensate for too much.
More than one herb or spice can be used in a recipe. When creating a recipe, start by using only one or two choices. As you gain experience in cooking with herbs and spices, taste will tell if others might be added.
Many cultural specialties feature yeast breads and quick breads using a variety of spices and herbs.
Add the following ingredients per pound (3 to 4 cups flour) of yeast dough. 1 tsp. sage, 2 tsp. caraway seed, and 1 1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1 1/2 Tbsp. dill seed or 1 1/2 Tbsp. caraway seed and 1/8 cup instant minced onion
1/2 tsp. sage, 1/2 tsp. thyme, and 1/2 tsp. marjoram
Herb Vinegar Dressings
Use with vegetable salads or cooked vegetables.
1/8 tsp. ground black pepper, 1 tsp. dry mustard, 1/2 tsp. paprika, 3/4 tsp. garlic powder, 1 Tbsp. finely chopped chives, 3 Tbsp. cider vinegar, 1/2 cup vegetable oil, 2 Tbsp. pickle relish, 2 Tbsp. lemon juice. Yield: 3/4 to 1 cup
3/4 cup tomato juice, 2 Tbsp. lemon juice, 2 Tbsp. instant minced onion, 1 Tbsp. basil leaves crushed, 1/4 tsp. garlic powder, 1/8 tsp. ground cumin seed, 1/8 tsp. ground red pepper. Yield: 3/4 to 1 cup.
Adding Spices to a Recipe
Whole Spices and Herbs
Tie herbs and spices in a cheesecloth, nylon net or muslin bag, or place them in a tea ring. The bag or ring is easy to remove to stop the seasoning process. Particles that may cause difficulty in chewing or swallowing also can be removed.
Add whole herbs and spices at the start of cooking in recipes that will cook for an hour or longer. Examples are soups and stews.
Many herbal and spiced teas can be made using whole herbs and spices.
Flavoring seeds can be toasted briefly in the oven or on top of the stove to enhance flavor. Whole herbs are usually crumbled and added near the end of cooking.
Crushed and Ground Herbs and Spices
Add about 15 minutes before the end of cooking. The flavors in crushed or ground spices are released quickly.
Crushing or grinding whole spices and herbs provides more flavor than the whole form. Ground black pepper in a pepper shaker does not have the zest of freshly ground pepper. Grinding pepper from the pepper corn provides more flavor.
For cold salad dressings, mix herbs and/or spices with vinegar for several hours before adding oil in order to develop the flavor.