Z&M

Thursday, March 02, 2006

SVAŠTA O ZAČINIMA: DEFINICIJA MIRODIJA I ZAČINA, RECEPTI, POHRANA,...

Definitions of Herbs and Spices
Definitions of herbs and spices vary somewhat but can be identified as follows:
Herbs are leaves of low-growing shrubs. Examples are parsley, chives, marjoram, thyme, basil, caraway, dill, oregano, rosemary, savory, sage and celery leaves. These can be used fresh or dried. Dried forms may be whole, crushed, or ground. Many herbs can be grown in the United States in or out of doors.
Spices come from the bark (cinnamon), root (ginger, onion, garlic), buds (cloves, saffron), seeds (yellow mustard, poppy, sesame), berry (black pepper), or the fruit (allspice, paprika) of tropical plants and trees.
Many dehydrated vegetable seasonings are available. These include onion, garlic, sweet peppers, mint, mixed vegetables, and freeze-dried chives and shallots.
Condiments are usually a combination of herbs and spices blended in a liquid form. Examples are prepared mustard, catsup, Worcestershire sauce, tabasco sauce, and many of the steak sauces and specialty vinegars. Many of these contain sodium.
Seasoning blends are mixtures of spices and herbs. Check spice companies for exact mixtures. Some examples of seasoning blends are:
Chili powder (red pepper, cumin, oregano, salt, and garlic powder)
Curry powder (coriander, turmeric, cumin, fenugreek seed, white pepper, allspice, yellow mustard, red pepper, and ginger)
Poultry seasoning (white pepper, sage, thyme, marjoram, savory, ginger, allspice, and nutmeg)
Pumpkin pie spice (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, allspice, and cloves)

Storing Spices
Whole herbs and spices last much longer than crushed or ground forms. Many consumers prefer to buy the whole form and crush or grind as needed for greater freshness. Herbs and spices can be crushed with a mortar and pestle, by using a rolling pin with spices between two cloths, or by using the back of a spoon in a cup.
Check ground or crushed herbs and spices for freshness at least once a year. If no aroma is detected after crushing, the seasoning needs to be replaced. Mustard seed and poppy seed aromas will be difficult to detect. Buying the smaller size instead of the economy size container will save money if the large package is not used while it is still fresh.
Store away from moisture. Dampness causes caking and a loss of quality.Store in tightly covered, air tight container.Use clean, dry spoons for measuring.
Store in a cool place.Do not store in a window or in sunlight, or near heat sources such as the cooking areas or the dishwasher.In hot climates, store spices such as paprika, red pepper, and chili powder in the refrigerator to maintain quality.
Storage Life of Herbs and Spices
Seasoning
Storage Time
Whole
2-5 years
Ground Spices
6 months-2 years
Leafy Herbs
3 months-2 years
Dehydrated Vegetables
6 months rice
Enhancing Sweet Flavors
Enhance flavor with sweet tasting spices instead of sugar: allspice, anise, cardamon, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, mace, nutmeg. Milk-Yogurt-Cheese: custards, puddings, sauces Meats: beef, fish, poultry, sauces, bean dishes Vegetables: beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, pumpkin Fruits: fruit compote, baked fruit, spiced fruit Breads: gingerbread, sweet yeast breads, pumpkin bread, banana bread, rice or bread pudding.
Enhancing Savory Flavors
Seasoned salts (garlic salt) contain salt. Most meat sauces (steak sauce, soy sauce) are high in sodium.
Make yogurt-based spicy dressings to use with salads and fruit dishes. The following spices are good to use as a substitute for salt/sodium and fat: basil, bay leaf, celery seed, chili powder, cumin, curry powder, dill, marjoram, mustard, oregano, paprika, pepper, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme.
You can use these spices with fondue, cheese spread, chowder, meats, souffl», curried dishes, beans and soups, salads, greens, tomatoes/juice, pasta salads, specialty breads, and rice.

The Art of Seasoning
The art of using herbs and spices is learning how much to add and how to combine flavors. Several guidelines suggest amounts to use in developing recipes: Use strong, pungent spices such as red pepper in small amounts. More delicate seasoning can be used in greater amounts without ruining the final product. Although the herb or spice should enhance and not overpower the flavor, cultural preferences will influence your decision.
Start with a tested recipe. After it has been prepared, decide if more or less seasoning is needed for the next time. Spice and herb companies recommend about 1/4 teaspoon (a pinch) of spice per pound of meat or pint of liquid when creating recipes. Only use 1/8 teaspoon of stronger seasonings such as red pepper and garlic. Remember, it is easier to add more than to try to compensate for too much.
More than one herb or spice can be used in a recipe. When creating a recipe, start by using only one or two choices. As you gain experience in cooking with herbs and spices, taste will tell if others might be added.
Herb Bread
Many cultural specialties feature yeast breads and quick breads using a variety of spices and herbs.
Add the following ingredients per pound (3 to 4 cups flour) of yeast dough. 1 tsp. sage, 2 tsp. caraway seed, and 1 1/2 tsp. nutmeg
1 1/2 Tbsp. dill seed or 1 1/2 Tbsp. caraway seed and 1/8 cup instant minced onion
1/2 tsp. sage, 1/2 tsp. thyme, and 1/2 tsp. marjoram
Herb Vinegar Dressings
Use with vegetable salads or cooked vegetables.
1/8 tsp. ground black pepper, 1 tsp. dry mustard, 1/2 tsp. paprika, 3/4 tsp. garlic powder, 1 Tbsp. finely chopped chives, 3 Tbsp. cider vinegar, 1/2 cup vegetable oil, 2 Tbsp. pickle relish, 2 Tbsp. lemon juice. Yield: 3/4 to 1 cup
3/4 cup tomato juice, 2 Tbsp. lemon juice, 2 Tbsp. instant minced onion, 1 Tbsp. basil leaves crushed, 1/4 tsp. garlic powder, 1/8 tsp. ground cumin seed, 1/8 tsp. ground red pepper. Yield: 3/4 to 1 cup.

Adding Spices to a Recipe
Whole Spices and Herbs
Tie herbs and spices in a cheesecloth, nylon net or muslin bag, or place them in a tea ring. The bag or ring is easy to remove to stop the seasoning process. Particles that may cause difficulty in chewing or swallowing also can be removed.
Add whole herbs and spices at the start of cooking in recipes that will cook for an hour or longer. Examples are soups and stews.
Many herbal and spiced teas can be made using whole herbs and spices.
Flavoring seeds can be toasted briefly in the oven or on top of the stove to enhance flavor. Whole herbs are usually crumbled and added near the end of cooking.
Crushed and Ground Herbs and Spices
Add about 15 minutes before the end of cooking. The flavors in crushed or ground spices are released quickly.
Crushing or grinding whole spices and herbs provides more flavor than the whole form. Ground black pepper in a pepper shaker does not have the zest of freshly ground pepper. Grinding pepper from the pepper corn provides more flavor.
For cold salad dressings, mix herbs and/or spices with vinegar for several hours before adding oil in order to develop the flavor.

MALO O NEKIM RATOVIMA ZA ZAČINE

HistoryCinnamon, nutmeg and mace made the tiny Banda Islands highly prized and their 17th Century Dutch colonists extremely rich, but at a severe price for the Bandanese. Spices had value not only for their exotic and unique flavours but also their medicinal properties, balancing the "humours" of the body and as a symbol of extreme opulence and luxury. In 1596 the Guild of Spice Breads was formed in Paris. This luxury loaf contained cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg honey and brazil wood.
As the world's only source of nutmeg and mace, the Banda islands have attracted traders from China, Asia and the Middle East for over 30 centuries, ever since the Persians first traded cloves from Moluccas. The Roman Empire's spices also can from this remote site in East Indonesia. Only the handful of volcanic islands here are ripe for growing cloves and nutmeg.
By the 1600s, spices were more widely available due to new sea routes, which were dangerous but profitable to the new Portugese traders. They conquered the Banda islands which were the west's first experiments in plantation colonialism. Many of the native Bandanese were slaughtered or enslaved by the Dutch during this period. The Dutch, British and Portuguese battled endlessly to control the islands. The Dutch even gave the British Manhattan Island for one small spice island. Initially the Dutch traded amicably with the Bandanese, but in the late 17th cenutry they tried to imposes a trade monopoly which incited a war with the proud Bandanese. Banda was so rich at the time, people used to joke that when you shake a nutmeg tree golden guilders would fall down.Spice wars6,000 people were killed during the spice war. The Bandanese fought from the water in boats called Kora Kora, a war canoe, with a cannon to blast the Dutch. Nowadays, twice a year the Bandanese decorate their war canoes in preparation for the Kora Kora races. There’s a lot of village pride at stake.
Spice life todayTraditional life hasn’t changed much in the Banda islands, but it may soon. Already the island is beginning to take off as a tourist destination for the rich and famous, attracted by some of the richest and most varied marine life in the world and its smouldering island active volcano, Gunung Api. Despite its threatening appearance Gunung Api has only erupted four times in the last four hundred years although the last time in 1988 it forced the evacuation of everyone in Bandas.

UPOTREBE ZAČINA KROZ POVIJEST

SPICES
I. Ancient times: 50,000 B.C.- 400s A.D. A. Uses--food, medicine, cosmetic, religious, embalming B. Ancient cultures-- Babylon, Egypt, Assyria C. Phoneicians-- sailors and traders D. Greece and Rome 1. Spices symbolic of luxury 2. Trade flourished in empire E. Arabs 1. Became "middle-men" by 300 A.D. 2. Kept existance of world east of India secret and frightening 3. Actually monopolized trade until the Renaissance
II. Middle Ages: 476 - 1300 A.D. A. Fall of Rome in 476 A.D.-- unsafe to travel, spice trade slows= "the Dark Ages" B. Venice (Italy): 1. Beginning of the Crusades in 1100s-- Venice offers financial backing, and receives trade concessions in return 2. Ends up controlling spice trade in Mediterranean 3. Becomes extremely wealthy-- this money funded the Renaissance C. Price of spices goes very high-- trendy affluence, collected, given as gifts D. Marco Polo gets back from a trip to China in 1298: 1. His book tells everyone about the Far East-- first western contact with eastern cultures 2. Informs Europe about the more exotic spices available 3. Also infuses Europe with lots of Arabic achievements: a. arabic numbers, leading to bookkeeping and eventually capitalism b. astronomical and nautical knowledge that made later world voyages possible c. the carpet and the sofa!
III. Renaissance: 1300-1700 A.D. A. Europeans stimulated to find a sea route to the Far East B. All nations want the spice trade--"cut out the middleman"
1400s--Everybody tries to get to the Far East 1. 1492--C. Columbus (Spain) goes West to get to the Far East a. finds the New World and calls it the West Indies, establishes Spanish claim b. finds New World spices 2. 1497--Vasco da Gama (Portugal) goes east around Africa and reaches India 3. 1490s--Portuguese travel to South America, claim Brazil
1500s-- Portuguese take over spice trade 1. 1502-1516-- Portuguese reach India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Moluccas-- conquered, enslaved, and killed any resistant natives 2. Portugal controlls exports of eastern spices, and starts settlements in China and Japan 3. 1522-- Magellan (Spain) makes first voyage around the world, claims the Phillipines 4. 1529--Spain gives the Spice Islands to Portugal, and quits the spice trade (concentrates on plundering the New World for gold and jewels) 5. 1578-- Sir Francis Drake (England) makes another voyage around the world, establishes England in India
1600s-- the Dutch take it away from Portugal 1. The Dutch (from Holland) start the Dutch East India Company and take over the Spice Islands, Malacca, Indonesia, and Ceylon 2. Dutch are harsher occupiers than Portuguese-- burn what they can't control, and kill smugglers 3. Dutch also establish colonies in Australia, New Zeland, and South Africa (=Afrikaaners)
IV. Early Modern times: 1700-1900 A. British East India Company wants the spice trade, and the trade of tea, silk, cotton B. 1780s-1800s-- War!! England takes India, Ceylon, and Spice Islands away from the Dutch C. 1818-- Seeds of eastern spices are smuggled around the world, monopolies broken up, start of slave-labor on plantations D. 1860s-- U.S. clipper ships bring prosperity to northern U.S. with black pepper trade
V. Modern remnants of the spice trade: A. Dutch Afrikaaners in S. Africa B. Portuguese influence in Brazil C. Spanish influence in Philippines, Latin America D. Populations of African descent in West Indies E. British influence in India F. Various countries, especially Africa-- political struggles due to power vacuum after independence gained from European colonizers

ADRESE ZA LITERATURU

1. http://www.fastmoneyhappens.com/
2. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/Wilson/pp/s99/spices.htm
3. http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/asia/indonesia/spice_wars.php
4. http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/foods/348-907/348-907.html
5.

ZAČINI UMJESTO KINTE


Commodity moneyThe first instances of money were objects which were useful for their intrinsic value. This was known as commodity money and included any commonly-available commodity that has intrinsic value; historical examples include pigs, rare seashells, whale's teeth, and cattle. Spices have long been used as commodity money. Definite indications are available that both black and white pepper have been used as commodity money since hundreds of years before Christ. Being a valuable commodity pepper has naturally been used as payment. Attila the Hun reportedly demanded 3,000 pounds in weight of pepper in 408AD as part of a ransom for the city of Rome. In the Middle Ages there was a French saying, 'As dear as pepper'. In England rent could be paid in pounds of pepper and so a symbolic minimal amount is known as a "peppercorn rent".Even in the industrialised world, in the absence of other types of money, people have occasionally used commodities such as tobacco as money. This last happened on a wide scale after World War II when cigarettes became used unofficially in Europe in parallel with other currencies for a short time.Another example of "commodity money" is the shell money of the Solomon Islands. Shells are painstakingly chipped into rough circles, filed down, and threaded onto large necklaces which are then used during marriage proposals. For instance, a father may charge twenty shell money necklaces for his daughter's hand in marriage.One interesting example of commodity money is the huge limestone coins from the Micronesian island of Yap, quarried at great peril from a source several hundred miles away. The value of the coin was determined by its size — the largest of which could range from nine to twelve feet in diameter and weigh several tons. Displaying a large coin, often outside one's home, was a considerable status symbol and source of prestige in that society. Due to the obvious inconvenience associated with moving a coin islanders would often only trade promises of ownership rather than actually moving it. In some cases coins which had been lost at sea were still used for exchange in this way. These agreements could be thought of as a kind of representative money.Once a commodity becomes used as money it takes on a value that is often somewhat different from what the commodity is intrinsically worth or useful for. Being able to use something as money in a society adds an extra use to it and so adds value to it. This extra use is a convention of society and how extensive the use of money is within the society will affect the value of the monetary commodity. So although commodity money is real it should not be seen as having a fixed value in absolute terms. Its value is still socially determined to a large extent.

Tuesday, February 28, 2006

PUT ZAČINA - KARTA

Monday, February 27, 2006

POPIS ZAČINA NA HRVATSKOM JEZIKU

http://www.vegetarijanska-udruga.hr/clanci/abeceda%20korisnih%20zacina.htm
ZAČIN
KORISNI DIJELOVI
MIRIS/OKUS
UPORABA
KORISNO DJELOVANJE
ANĐELIKA (Angelica archangelica)
Listovi, sjemenke, korijen
Aromatičan, slatkast
Za napitke, uz kiselo voće, za dekoriranje jela, u umacima; slaže se s metvicom
Povoljno djeluje na probavne organe, ublažava grčeve
ANIS (Pimpimella anisum)
Sjemenke i mladi svježi zeleni dijelovi
Slatkast, sličan mentolu (stajanjem brzo gubi aromu)
Kruh, peciva, kolači, slastice, likeri; zeleni dijelovi prijaju uz mrkvu, grah i krumpir
Potiče probavu, ublažava grčeve, umanjuje nadimanje, protiv mučnine, koristan za trudnice (potiče laktaciju) i malu djecu (protiv grčeva); za njegu kože
ASAFETIDA (Ferula asafoetida)
Biljna smola, u obliku grumena ili praha
Aroma slična luku i češnjaku
Široka primjena za slana jela (zamjena za luk; okus ali ne i tekstura!)
Potiče probavu
BORAŽINA borač (Borago officinalis)
Svježa ili suha biljka
Aromatičan, malo podsjeća na luk
Hladni napitci, jela od skute, sira i jogurta; krastavci, salata, sendviči
Kod upale usne šupljine i desni, za bolji rad srca i bubrega, protiv kašlja, koristan u pripravcima za njegu kože
BOROVICA(Juniperus communis)
Zrele bobice (osušene ili svježe)
Slatkasto-mirisan, osvježavajuć, pikantan (gorkasto-smolast)
Kupus, razni nadjevi, umaci, ukiseljene namirnice, marinade, ljekoviti pripravci s alkoholom
Pospješuje izlučivanje vode i štetne sastojke u organizmu, potiče probavu
BOSILJAK(Ocimum basilicum)
Zeleni dijelovi biljke, svježi ili osušeni
Aromatičan, osvježavajući (najmirisniji je prije cvjetanja)
Juhe, složenci, jela od graha, krumpir, kupus, krastavac, aromatizirani octevi i ulja, rajčica, razne salate.Slaže se s ružmarinom i kaduljom
Kod oboljenja bubrega i mokraćnih putova, djeluje protiv nadimanja, potiče tek, pomaže kod probavnih i dišnih tegoba
BOUQUET GARNI, začinski stručak
Kitica od začinskog bilja (po vlastitome izboru: peršin, lovor, majčina dušica...)
Juhe, složenci, variva
CELER(Apium graveolens)
Kao povrće i začin; mlado lišće i orijen
Jaki miris
Juhe, složenci, salate, umaci, popečci, za kiseljenje namirnica
Dijuretik, može sniziti krvni tlak, razinu kolesterola, povoljno djeluje kod psorijaze
CHILLI, čili(Capiscum sp.)
Svježa ili sušena i mljevena paprika
Žestok, ljut
Meksička jela, razna slana jela (popečci, umaci, variva, juhe)
Pospješuje probavu i krvotok, ublažava bol, umiruje živce, snizuje razinu triglicerida i kolesterola u krvi, pomaže kod otapanja sluzi kod prehlada. Ne preporučuje se kod želučanih i crijevnih smetnji
CIMET (Cimetovac: Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Kora drveta cimetovca u obliku štapićima ili mljeven
Slatkast, mirisan
Istočnjačka jela, curry, kolači, slastice, kompoti, topli napitci, mliječni deserti i riža
U manjim količinama povoljno djeluje na živce želuca, pomaže kod probavnih smetnji, pri kontroli šećera u krvi, bolesti koronarnih arterija, visokog krvnog tlaka
CURRY(kari)
Mješavina 6-15 začina (kurkuma, korijandar, kumin, kardamom, čili...)
Manje ili više ljut
Jela od povrća i riže, razni umaci
Pospješuje probavu, sadrži antioksidanse, neki začini u curryu djeluju antibakterijski i protuupalno; snizuje razinu kolesterola i šećera u krvi, sprječava nastajanje krvnih ugrušaka
ČEHULJA(Myrrhis odorata)
Cijela biljka
Slatkast
Salate, slastice
Djeluje antiseptički, čisti organizam, potiče probavu
ČEŠNJAK (Allium sativum)
Koristi se lukovica i mladi listovi
Karakterističan vrlo jak miris i okus
Vrlo široka primjena (marinade, juhe, variva, složenci, popečci, salate, umaci...)
Pospješuje probavu, čisti organizam, djeluje protiv crijevnih nametnika, povoljno djeluje na krvožilni sustav; snažan je antioksidans, sprječava nastanak tumora, snizuje razinu kolesterola, sprječava nastajanje krvnih ugrušaka...
ČUBAR(Saturea hortensis)
Svježi ili sušeni zeleni dijelovi biljke
Aromatičan, paprena okusa
Mahunarke, kiseli kupus, krumpir, peciva; slaže se s majčinom dušicom
Povoljno djeluje na probavu, umanjuje grčeve, tjera crijevne nametnike
DRAGOLJUB (Tropaeolum majus)
Listovi i cvjetni pupoljci
Pomalo oštar, podsjeća na potočarku
Salate, umaci, sendviči; ukiseljeni pupoljci podsjećaju na kapare
Djeluje antibakterijski i antivirusno
DRAGUŠAC (Nasturtium officinale)
Svježi, zeleni listići (prije cvatnje)
Oštar, gorkast
Salate, kao prilog uz popečke, može zamijeniti peršin
Potiče probavu, djeluje na izmjenu tvari i dobar je dijuretik
ĐUMBIR, ingver (Zingber officinale)
Svježi ili mljeveni podanak (korijen)
Ugodno oštar, mirisan, ljut
Jela dalekog Istoka i Indije, povrće (osobito mahunarke, bundeva, dinja, mrkva), alge, riža, umaci, voće, kolači i slastice
Potiče tek, umanjuje mučninu, pospješuje probavu, može pomoći u sprječavanju nekih vrsta raka
ESTRAGON(Artemisia dranunculus)
Svježi ili osušeni listovi i vršci biljke
Blag, profinjen
Marinade, juhe, salate, jela s roštilja, rajčica, umaci, biljni maslac, sir, biljni ocat, kolači
Listovi su bogati jodom, vitaminima A i C; potiče probavu
FEFERON(Capsicumfrutescens)
Svježi ili osušeni zreli i nezreli plodovi
Ljuti ili slatki
Umaci, salate, razna slana jela, kisela zimnica
Potiče tek. Ne preporučuje se kod želučanih i crijevnih smetnji
FINESS HERBS, usitnjeno bilje
Svježi ili osušeni zreli i nezreli plodovi
Služenci, juhe, variva
GARAM MASALA
Smjesa prženih začina (kumin, korijandar, kardamom, cimet, papar, klinčić, muškatni oraščić)
Mirisan
Indijska jela
Povoljno djeluje na probavu
GORUŠICA -crna (Brassica nigra)- bijela(Sinapis alba)
Cijele sjemenke (crne ili bijele) ili mljeven
Oštar, ljut (crne su sjemenke oštrijeg okusa)
Povrće, popečci, mariniranje, konzerviranje, sendviči, preljevi, pikantni umaci, senf, majoneza
Pospješuje probavu, sredstvo za čiščenje, pomaže kod sprječavanja raka i srčanih bolesti, u obliku obloga pomaže kod bolova (reumatizam, artritis)
HERBES DE PROVENCE, provansalskozačinsko bilje
Mješavina kadulje, bosiljka, majčine dušice, čubra, mažurana i ružmarina
Mirisan
Složenci, juhe, variva
HRENArmoratiarusticana)
Podanak (korijen)
Ljut, oštar
Salate, povrće (cikla, kupus), topli i hladni umaci
Pospješuje probavu i krvotok, antibakterijsko i protuupalno djelovanje (prehlade, reumatizam, ozebline...), povoljno djeluje na dišne organe
IĐIROT(Acoruscalamus)
Cijela biljka, osobito korijen (podanak)
Jak, podsjeća na cimet
Poboljšava okus raznim jelima, češće se koristi kao dio začinskih mješavina
Povoljno djeluje na probavne i mokraćne organe
KADULJA, žalfija (Salvia officinalis)
Svježi i osušeni listovi
Gorak, oštar, aromatičan
Mahunarke, smjese za punjenje, popečci, marinade, umaci, juhe, variva... Slaže se s pelinom, čubrom, majčinom dušicom i lukom
Za njegu i jačanje usne šupljine, živaca i krvi, za ispiranje grla, protiv prehlade, smanjuje pretjerano znojenje, pomaže kod nekih menstruacijskih problema, menopauze, povoljno djeluje na kožu
KAJENSKAPAPRIKA (PAPAR)(Capsicum sp.)
Sušeni i mljeveni plodovi
Vrlo ljuta, oštra
Indijska i meksička jela; juhe, pikantni umaci
Pospješuje probavu i krvotok, ublažava bol, umiruje živce, snizuje razinu triglicerida i kolesterola u krvi, pomaže kod otapanja sluzi kod prehlada. Ne preporučuje se kod želučanih i crijevnih smetnji
KAPARI (Capparisspinosa)
Pupoljci
Trpkast i gorkast okus
Konzerviraju se u soli i octu, služe kao pikantan dodatak nekim mediteranskim jelima, marinadama, juhama, umacima, te ukiseljenome povrću; za dekoriranje jela
Pospješuju tek
KARDAMOM(Elettaria cardamomum)
Mahune sa sjemenkama ili mljeven
Oštar
Curry, namazi, punčevi, slastice, kompoti, voćne salate, kolači od kiselog i biskvitnog tijesta
Pomaže kod nadutosti, loše probave i glavobolje
KIM(Carum carvi)
Cijele sjemenke ili mljeven
Jak, mirisan
Složenci, juhe, skuta, sir, kupus, namazi, zelana salata, cikla, peciva i kruh (raženi), kolači i slastice
Pospješuje probavu, otklanja loš dah, grčeve i nadutost. Pogodan za djecu
b(Syzygiumaromaticum, Eugenia aromatica)
Osušeni cvjetni pupoljci
Ugodno oštar, mirisan
Kompoti, topli napitci, likeri, jela od sira i jogurta, slatke i krem-juhe, jela od riže
Pospješuje probavu i tek
KOMORAČ (Foeniculum vulgare)
Koriste se sjemenke i zeleni dijelovi biljke
Aromatičan, podsjeća na anis
Umaci, variva, juhe, salate, kuhano povrće, kruh i peciva
Pospješuje probavu, djeluje protiv grčeva, pročišćava dišne putove
KOPAR (Anethumgraveolens)
Zeleni dio biljke i sjemenke
Okus sličan kimu
Za kiseljenje krastavaca, kruh, peciva; juhe i ostala jela od krumpira, krastavaca, gljiva, kelja, kupusa; salate od rajčice, celera, krasatavaca
Povoljno utječe na probavu i sluznicu želuca, za poboljšanje daha, sprječava povraćanje, pojačava laktaciju, dobar je protiv grčeva i nesanice
KORIJANDAR (Coriandrumsativum)
Koriste se sjemenke i listovi
- Sjeme: podsjeća na muškatni orah- List: neobičan, pomalo neugodan
- Sjeme: salate, namazi, umaci, crveni kupus, kelj, cikla, gljive, kompoti, medenjaci, slastice; indijska jela- Listovi: jela s curryem, variva, salate, umaci, za ukras
Pospješuje probavu, sprječava nadutost
KRASULJICA,krbuljica (Anthriscus cerefolium)
Mladi zeleni dijelovi biljke (osušena nema veće vrijednosti)
Ugodna, slatkasta aroma
Juhe, umaci, povrće, salate, sir, skuta, biljni octovi, biljni maslac
Sadrži mogo vitamina C, sprječava nadutost, povoljno utječe na jetru, potiče probavu, poboljšava cirkulaciju
KRVARA, MALA (Sanguisorba minor)
Cijela biljka
Pomalo orašast, podsjeća na krastavac
Juhe, variva, umaci, biljni maslac, salate, sirevi, razno povrće; slaže se s ružmarinom i estragonom
Bogata vitaminom C, djeluje kao tonik i dijuretik, pomaže kod hemoroida i proljeva, korisna za njegu osjetljive i oštećene kože
KUMIN (Cuminum cyminum)
Cijele sjemenke ili mljeven
Oštar, gorkast
Indijska i meksička jela, složenci, sir, jogurt, juhe, kelj, cikla, kiseli kupus, krumpir
Pomaže kod nadutosti, grčeva i proljeva; potiče probavu
KURKUMA (Curcuma domestica,C. longa)
Tropski začin, intenzivno žute boje, koristi se korijen nalik na gomolj; u obliku praha
Gorak, oštar
Sastavni dio currya i još nekih začinskih mješavina; za juhe, preljeve, umake, uz rižu,
Djeluje dezinfekcijski, povoljno utječe na probavni sustav, povoljno utječe na krv, a izvana se koristi za ublažavanje modrica
LAVANDA (Lavandula angustifolia)
Cvjetovi i listovi
Svježeg, ugodnog, dugotrajnog mirisa
- Cvijet: za aromatiziranje marmelada, za ukras (ušećereni)- List: za marinade, neka slana jela, mirisne octove
Korisna je kod nesanice, glavobolje, vrtoglavice, probavnih problema, raznih upala i bolova, kod ugriza insekata; koristi se u pripravcima za njegu kože
LAZARKINJA (Galium odoratum, Asperula odorata)
Koristi se sušena
Miris ugodan
Za čaj, za aromatiziranje napitaka, osobito vina
Ublažava želučane i jetrene tegobe, poboljšava san. Veće su količine štetne (zbog spoja kumarina, od kojeg i potječe miris)
LIMETA (Citrus aurantifolia)
Vrsta agruma slična limunu; koristi se sok i ribana (neprskana) kora
Aromatičan, okus kiseo i osvježavajući
Slično kao i limun
Slično kao i limun
LIMUN (Citruslimon)
Koristi se sok i ribana (neprskana) kora
Miris ugodan, okus kiseo i osvježavajući
- kora: za razne napitke, slastice, salate, gulaše...- sok: za salete, juhe, preljeve, napitke, marinade
Sadrži mnogo vitamina C, djeluje dezinfe-kcijski, antivirusni, antibakte-rijski, te protiv nekih vrsta raka, pomaže u kontroli kolesterola